Taj Mahal Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia ensiklopedia bebas

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Indonesian is the medium of instruction in educational institutions at all levels throughout the country. In the early years of the Republic, local languages continued to be used in some places as the medium of instruction in the first years of primary school but this practice has now almost entirely disappeared. In schools and universities most textbooks are in Indonesian, but at the tertiary level, especially in highly specialised courses and at the advanced level of study, textbooks in English are also widely used.

Although there are several newspapers in English and Chinese, their circulation is relatively small and Indonesian is by far the dominant language in the country’s print media. Indonesia’s domestic Palapa satellite system brings television to almost every corner of the country. With the exception of some newscasts in English and a small number of cultural programs in regional languages, domestic programs are entirely in Indonesian, and almost all programs of foreign origin are dubbed into Indonesian or have Indonesian-language sub-titles. Similarly Indonesian dominates in the very diverse and vibrant domain of radio broadcasting, although there are a small number of specialist programs in English and in some local languages.

In politics, administration and the judiciary Indonesian is the sole official language. It is the language of legislation, political campaigning, national and local government, court proceedings and the military. In some instances, judges may refer to old statutes and court records in Dutch to help them reach their decisions. In some rural areas of the country, for example in the hinterland of Java and in the mountains of West Papua, local languages may also play a role in administration and in the propagation of government policies.

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Indonesian differs from Malaysian in the quantity of loanwords from Javanese, Dutch and other languages. For example, the word for 'post office' in Malaysia is "pejabat pos" (in Indonesia this means 'post officer'), whereas in Indonesia it is "kantor pos", from the Dutch word for office, . There are also some influences: in Indonesia, Christmas is known as "Natal", whereas Malaysia uses "Krismas", derived from English (or in some cases also "Natal", due to Indonesian influence). Pronunciation of some loanwords in Standard Malay follows English, while some in Indonesian follows Dutch, for example Malay "televisyen" (from English: television) and Indonesian "televisi" (from Dutch: ), the "-syen" and "-si" also prevail in some other words. There are also instances where the Malaysian version derives from English pronunciation while the Indonesian version takes its cue from . The Latin preference of the (older) Indonesian intellectuals in these instances may be ascribed to the influence of their classical-oriented education when schools were established during the Dutch colonial period : compare Malay , , , and with Indonesian , , , and .

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Pronunciation also tends to be very different, with East Malaysia, Brunei and East Indonesia pronouncing words in a form called ,[] where the words are pronounced as spelt[] and enunciation tends to be clipped, staccato and faster than on the Malay Peninsula, which is spoken at a more languorous pace. Many vowels are pronounced (and were formerly spelt) differently in Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Sumatra: is pronounced (and was spelt) , as , etc., and many final s tend to be pronounced as ; and are also allophones of and in closed final syllables in peninsular Malaysian, Singaporean and Sumatran varieties of Malay.

Comparison of Standard Malay and Indonesian - Wikipedia

One of the most important aspect in differences between Malaysian and Indonesian is the degree of influence from English. Apart from being heavily influenced by the Dutch language, Indonesian language also adopted a significant number of English loanwords in its vocabulary, although English didn't play significant role on the Indonesian language and in fact most of these vocabulary are of Dutch origin (note that Dutch and English share a similar ). There have been many changes in Indonesian language as a result of its historical development. Words have been freely borrowed from English and only partly assimilated, in many cases, to the Indonesian patterns of structure. By the late 1970s, English words pouring into the language, leading one commentator, writing in 1977, to refer to the "trend towards Indo-Saxonisation". A great many borrowings from English sometimes fulfill no communicative need, expressing concepts adequately covered by existing words. Among the examples are: instead of (accurate), in the place of (alliance), rather than (exist), as well as (candidate), instead of (conclusion) in the place of (contamination), rather than (opinion) and in the place of (option). Contrary to its Indonesian counterpart, Malaysian has shown a remarkable resilience, despite being a former colony of .

One notable difference in between the two languages is the use of different ; Indonesian, influenced by Dutch, uses the , whereas Malay, influenced by English, uses the .

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(Bahasa Melayu) and "Indonesian" (Bahasa Indonesia).

Indonesians are overwhelmingly bilingual, indeed many people have a good command of three of four languages. In infancy most people learn at least one of the country’s many local languages and later learn Indonesian at school or in the streets of cities or from television and radio. It is not clear how many people learn Indonesian in infancy as their very first language, but at the dawn of the 21st. century it cannot be less than 20% of the country’s population, and this percentage is steadily rising. Indonesian tends to be most used in the modern environment of major urban areas. The local languages tend to dominate in rural areas and small towns, and are most used in homes, fields and markets.

A good deal of the modern prestige of Indonesian comes from its role in the country’s nationalist movement. But in the early years of the century Malay was not an obvious or unanimous choice as the language of indigenous cultural and political revival in the then Netherlands East Indies. At first, nationalism was as much expressed through Dutch, or through the languages of Indonesia’s local cultures, as it was through Malay. It was only with the famous Young People’s Vow (Sumpah Pemuda) formulated at the Congress of Young People in 1928 that the very name “Indonesian” was formally adopted and the language declared the pre-eminent language of Indonesia as well as the language of national unity. When the Indonesian nationalists emerged from the shadow of the Japanese occupation in 1945 to declare an independent republic, the Proclamation of Independence was uttered in Indonesian. Both the state philosophy of Pancasila and the Constitution were framed in Indonesian. The subsequent victory of the Republic in the Revolution (1945-1949) consolidated the prestige of the language and gave its development unstoppable momentum.Indonesia hosts a sparkling variety of traditional verbal arts (poetry, historical narratives, romances, drama etc.) which are expressed in local languages, but modern genres are expressed mainly through Indonesian. Modern literature (novels, short stories, stage plays, free-form poetry etc.) has developed since the late years of the 19th. century and has produced such internationally recognised figures as novelist Pramoedya Ananta Toer, dramatist W.S. Rendra, poet Chairil Anwar and cinematographer Garin Nugroho. Indonesian is also the language of the nation’s breezy, inventive popular arts: TV melodrama and comedy, pop novels, popular songs, cartoons and comics.