"Changes in the Land" Analytical Essay 61670

Essays Related to Changes in the Land - Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England

The pressure for the development of western lands required the removal of Indians from those lands. Even while government agents were holding out promises of western lands that would be theirs forever, Americans were exploring those lands. In 1819, Thomas Nuttall, an English botanist, traveled to the Arkansas territory. His account painted a picture of a fertile and productive environment for agriculture, a description seemingly designed to inspire interest in the minds of land speculators. The Choctaw leader Pushmataha, however, when pressed to sign a treaty ceding his tribe's land in central Mississippi in exchange for others in the west, protested: "We wish to remain here, where we have grown up as the herbs of the woods; and do not wish to be transplanted into another soil."

Congress followed the actions of the states with the 1830 Indian Removal Act that directed the federal government to negotiate with Indian tribes to exchange their lands east of the Mississippi River for lands to the west. Under the provisions of the act, the Choctaws, the Chickasaws, Cherokees, Creeks, and ultimately the Seminoles, who had fled to Florida in the early nineteenth century, moved to Indian Territory (what is now the state of Oklahoma) in the period from 1831 through the 1840s.

Despite the integration of domesticated cattle and the technology of weaving into their lifestyles, Americans still considered the southeastern tribes savages. The increasing American population led to pressure to develop new western lands. The War of 1812, a definitive victory over the English, gave Americans a sense of national identity, but it also created a need for Indian land. The United States paid its soldiers from the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 not with money but with warrants that they could exchange for western land.

Changes In The Land Cronon Free Essays - Paper Camp

Many students will simply want to “blame” Europeans and their capitalistic system for “destroying” the southern environment. Students will need to be reminded that the world Europeans encountered in the South was not some idyllic Eden, but a land already changed by Native American practices such as hunting and agriculture. You can also point out some of the general similarities between European and Indian culture, especially dependence on agriculture and well-developed systems of trade. European adoption of Indian agricultural techniques for clearing fields and the natives’ willingness to trade deerskins (which they regarded as common items) for more efficient and exotic metal goods are but two examples of ways in which the two cultures borrowed from each other.

William Cronon’s Changes in the Land. - College Essays …

In less than about one hundred years, the ecosystem in New England was irreparably transformed that changed the way of life for the native Indians found in North America.

Essays on changes in the land by william cronon

The Native Americans were nomadic people and traveled frequently according to the seasons and availability of food. In Changes in the Land, Cronon explains that the Native Americans only owned belongings that were essential because they moved around depending on where the food was most abundant (Cronon 54). During the seasonal migrations, a family might carry: clothing, baskets, fishing equipment, a few tools, corn, beans, and smoked meat (Cronon 54). Cabeza de Vaca explains that the Capoques and Han lived by the ocean in small huts. These huts are made of mats and their floors consisted of oyster shells, and they sleep on these shells in animal skins (de Vaca 62). The Han Indians often traveled to the shore to eat oysters during the Winter and would return to the mainland in the Spring. The Native Americans in both accounts are nomadic people and move around depending on the season.

In conclusion, in less than a century the ecosystems of New England had become irreparably changed, forever altering the Native American way of life.

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Essays on changes in the land by wi

Again environmental degradation in developing countries like India, especially its manifestations in the form of soil erosion, deforestation etc, is often attributed to rapid population growth. It has however been increasingly realized that since these predominantly agricultural countries are undergoing the process of technological progress and development, many other factors also modify the relationship between population and land. Changing techniques of production, changes in the pattern of land utilization of natural as well as human resources, industrialization, urbanization, changing life styles, rising aspirations, change in consumption pattern are some of the macro level factors which make the relationship between population and land use much more complex.


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"Changes in the Land" by William Cronon offers countless intimate observations and gatherings regarding the ecology of New England and the encounters between the colonists and the native americans. Cronon interprets and analyzes the different happenings in New England's plant and animal environments that occurred with the shift from Indian to European dominance. As the distant world and inhabitants of Europe were introduced to North America's ecosystem, the boundaries between the two were blurred. Cronon uses an arsenal of evidence to discuss the circumstances that brought upon drastic ecological consequences following European contact with New England. Cronon made use of reports and records in addition to scientific data as evidence for his arguments. Court records, town hall records, descriptions by travelers, surveyor records, etc. proved invaluable to Cronon's arguments. Europeans saw the land from an economic standpoint and tended to focus upon "merchantable commodities", ignoring economically insignificant aspects of nature. Cronon stated that the environment the Europeans first encountered in New England stunned them. Early descriptions were restricted to the coastline, but the accounts all agreed on the astounding level of animal and plant life in New England. The european settlers were not used to so much untamed land, as landscape for hunting in England was reserved to large landowners and the Crown. Heavy forests covered the New England terrain, which was also new to the settlers, as England had exhausted most of its timber as fuel. European settlers were struck by the absence of domesticated animals, which played a vital role in European agriculture. The European settlers and the Indians had different values on life and had differing opinions on how they should use the land around them. According to Cronon, "Many

Changes in use of lands The population continues to grow rapidly in the developing countries and great pressure is being placed on arable land, water,

Finally, some critics have questioned whether Leopold's land ethic might require unacceptable interferences with nature in order to protect current, but transient, ecological balances. If the fundamental environmental imperative is to the integrity and stability of natural ecosystems, wouldn't this require frequent and costly human interventions to prevent naturally occurring changes to natural environments? In nature, the "stability and integrity" of ecosystems are disrupted or destroyed all the time by drought, fire, storms, pests, newly invasive predators, etc. Must humans act to prevent such ecological changes, and if so, at what cost? Why should we place such high value on current ecological balances? Why think it is our role to be nature's steward or policeman? According to these critics, Leopold's stress on preserving existing ecological balances is overly human-centered and fails to treat nature with the respect it deserves.